Hello Biomass and Gasification Colleagues

I promised a couple of months ago to dig out our conversion tables for
biomass and engines we developed at Fluidyne for our own use.

Biomass is a fickle fuel and there are always variations to consider in
making calculations. If you just use these basic figures you won't go
wrong, unless that is you crib them to replace laboratory tests, so consider
them real world values!

The engine tables are not found in existing literature and have been tested
over thousands of hours using various engines. Use them sensibly and you
can do all sorts of cross calculations , that is with normally aspirated
engines. No references apply to turbo charged engines.

If you choose to include these tables in published literature, then extend
the courtesy of acknowledging their source.

Regards
Doug Williams
Fluidyne Gasification.

 

Engine Tables

WOOD TO ENERGY CONVERSION DATA
BEFORE GASIFICATION

Based on wood moisture content of 15% wet basis
Woods gross heat energy content: 15,490kJ per kg
Woods gross heat energy content: 6,600 BTU per lb

Or 4.3kW heat per kg. Or 2.615HP per lb


Gasifiers energy conversion efficiency: 73.57% HOT GAS
Gasifiers energy conversion efficiency: 70.95% COLD GAS


AFTER GASIFICATION

Gas produced from 1kg of wood: 2.185 standard cubic metres
Gas produced from 1lb of wood: 35 standard cubic feet

Energy content of 1 standard cubic metre of gas: 5,030kJ
Energy content of 1 standard cubic foot of gas: 135 BTU

After gasification 1kg wood yields 2.185 cubic metres of gas which has a nett heat energy content of 3.05kW heat.

After gasification 1lb wood yields 35 cubic feet of gas which has a nett heat energy content of 1.8566HP heat. (Or 4,725 BTU)


1kg of wood produces 2.185 cubic metres of gas
or 3.165kW heat from burning gas direct
or 0.837kW of shaft power i.e engine
or 0.754kW of electric power generated

1lb of wood produces 35 cubic feet of gas
or 4,900 BTU heat from burning the gas direct
or 1.925HP heat from burning the gas direct
or 0.51 HP of shaft power i.e engine
or 0.459HP of electric power generated
or 0.342kW of electric power generated


1 litre of diesel has a heat energy content of 9.630 kW heat (or 32,895 BTU)

1 litre of petrol as a heat energy content of 8.79 kW heat (or 30,023 BTU)


1 litre of diesel has the same heat energy content as the cold gas from 3.1579kg of wood
1 litre of petrol has the same heat energy content as the cold gas from 2.882kg of wood

 


 

INDICATIVE, WOOD WEIGHTS AND GAS VOLUMES REQUIRED
AND
INDICATIVE, SHAFT AND ELECTRIC POWER OUTPUTS
FOR ENGINES AND GENERATOR SETS
Fuelled with PRODUCER GAS from biomass (wood)

(tabulated values are per litre of swept volume (4 cycle))

Engine RPM

1200

1400

1500

1600

1800

2000

2200

2300

Spark Ignition Engines









Wood required in kg/hr

5.1

5.939

6.363

6.787

7.636

8.484

9.332

9.757

Gas required in m³/hr

11.2

13

14

14.932

16.8

18.665

20.532

21.465










Shaft power in kW

4.266

4.977

5.332

5.688

6.4

7.11

7.821

8.176

Electric power in kW.e

3.732

4.354

4.666

4.977

5.6

6.22

6.843

7.154










Dual fuel, diesel engines fuelled with diesel plus producer gas NOTE: Wood and gas required is the same as for spark ignition engines


















Shaft power in kW

5.332

6.221

6.665

7.11

8

8.887

9.776

10.22

Electric power in kW.e

4.665

5.443

5.832

6.221

7

7.776

8.554

8.942

To obtain wood and gas required plus power output values for a particular engine:


  1. Select the required RPM column

  2. Extract the required tabulated ‘per litre’ value

  3. Multiply that value by the particular engines swept volume in litres


 

INDICATIVE, WOOD WEIGHTS AND GAS VOLUMES REQUIRED

AND

INDICATIVE, SHAFT AND ELECTRIC POWER OUTPUTS

FOR ENGINES AND GENERATOR SETS

Fuelled with PRODUCER GAS from biomass (wood)

(tabulated values are per 100 cubic inches of total cylinder displacement (4 cycle))




Engine RPM
1200
1400
1500
1600
1800
2000
2200
2300
Spark Ignition Engines
Wood required in lbs/hr 18.426 21.457 22.989 24.521 27.588 30.652 33.715 35.251
Gas required in cu'ft'/hr 648.1 752.26 810.127 864.06 972.153 1080.07 1188.11 1242.1
Shaft horse power 9.375 10.937 11.717 12.5 14.065 15.625 17.187 17.968
Electric power in kW.e 6.116 7.135 7.646 8.156 9.177 10.193 11.214 11.724
Dual fuel, diesel engines fuelled with diesel plus producer gas NOTE: Wood and gas required is the same as for spark ignition engines
Shaft horse power 11.718 13.671 14.647 15.625 17.581 19.53 21.484 22.46
Electric power in kW.e 7.645 8.92 9.557 10.195 11.471 12.743 14.018 14.654



To obtain wood and gas required plus power output values for a particular engine:

  1. Select the required RPM column

  2. Extract the required tabulated 'per 100 cubic inches' value

  3. Multiply that value by the particular engines swept volume in whole 100s and decimals of 100 cubic inches. For example: 350 cubic inches = 3.5


 

Air Dry Wood Fuel Gross Heat Energy Content = 4.3kW per kg of wood


Wood > Gas > Energy Heat Yield (Hot Gas) = 3.165kW per kg of wood
Wood > Gas > Energy Heat Yield (Cold Gas) = 3.05kW per kg of wood


Wood to Gas Volume Yield = 2.185m³ gas per kg wood


Gas > Energy Heat Yield (Hot Gas) = 1.45kW per cubic metre hot gas
Gas > Energy Heat Yield (Cold Gas) = 1.4kW per cubic metre cold gas


Wood > Gas > Shaft Power Spark Ignition Engine (Petrol) = 0.837kW shaft per kg of wood
Wood > Gas > Shaft Power Spark Ignition Engine (Gas) = 0.82kW shaft per kg of wood
Wood > Gas > Shaft Power Dual Fuel Diesel Engine = 0.86kW shaft per kg of wood


Wood > Gas > Electricity Spark Ignition Petrol – Engine
Generator = 0.754kW/hr electricity per kg wood
Wood > Gas > Electricity Spark Ignition Gas – Engine
Generator = 0.697kW/hr electricity per kg wood
Wood > Gas > Electricity Dual Fuel Diesel – Engine
Generator = 0.731kW/hr electricity per kg wood


Wood > Gas > Process Heat (Direct) = 3.17kW heat per kg wood

Wood > Gas > Process Steam = 4.465kW steam per kg wood

Wood > Gas > Power Steam = 3.93kW steam per kg wood


Petrol engines run on Producer Gas at recommended, maximum continuous RPM.

High compression engines derate 37.3% approx to recover power including capacity x 1.6 times
Average high compression engines derate 42.5% approx to recover power including capacity x 1.74 times
Medium high compression engines derate 47.0% approx to recover power including capacity x 1.9 times
Low compression engines derate 56.3% approx to recover power including capacity x 2.3 times


Diesel (Dual Fuel) engines on pilot diesel plus Producer Gas at recommended, maximum continuous RPM – derate 20% approximately. To recover power including capacity x 1.25 times


Gas engines run on Producer Gas at recommended, maximum continuous RPM – companion ratio: 10 to 1 - derate 10% approximately. To recover power including capacity x 1.1 times